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Hospitals in the Indonesian Healthcare System

Mandaya Hospital Group
This page is generously sponsored by Mandaya Royal Hospital Puri, West Jakarta, and Mandaya Hospital Karawang.


Indonesia's health system is undergoing a tremendous transformation as it strives to achieve universal free healthcare provision for all Indonesian nationals and, in certain specific cases, for expats also.

This provision of health care to a country of more than 17,500 islands and more than 240 million people has been huge undertaking. As of 2010, approximately 56% of Indonesians had some form of health insurance. The government had hoped to achieve 100% by 2019, but as of 2020, this had actualized to an estimated 83% of the population.

These changes have seen the indicators of overall health in Indonesia improving, life expectancy rising from 63 years in 1990 to 72 years in 2019. Under five mortality rates, from 84 deaths per thousand live births in 1990 to 23 deaths in 2020. Infant mortality likewise has fallen from 62 deaths per 1000 live births in 1990 to 19 deaths in 2020.

But the provision of health care still leaves gaps with some not covered at all and with large disparities between rural and urban populations. At the same time, along with a population whose median age is getting older, other lifestyle factors such as overweight, smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol are all increasing and placing a greater burden on the healthcare system.

Public and Private Healthcare Hospitals and Clinics

Indonesian health care is a mixture of both public or government funded and run hospitals, and private medical care. Few specialist hospitals are available from the public financed sector, most being available from the private medical care, and most based in Jakarta or other larger cities. Likewise, doctors in the public sector are not particularly well paid and most will have practices within the private sector as well.

Government Health Centers - Puskemas

There are approximately 10,000 Puskesmas across Indonesia. These provide primary health care at the local level. Reporting through the Ministry of Health, these provide non-emergency care and operate very many different public health programs. There are two types of Puskesmas, those that have inpatient bed facilities and those that are for outpatients only. These are generally operated by a General Practitioner and a nurse or midwife in attendance. As such, any serious illness or accident is likely to be referred to the nearest hospital immediately.

The Puskesmas are often stretched in the capacity that they have available, and as a result most expats will rely firstly on the private hospital or clinic even for their primary health needs. Whilst Jakarta and other major cities may have good public health care facilities, most public health facilities, and certainly those in rural areas, are in great need of investment, modernization and improvement of staffing and professional capabilities. Private facilities, on the other hand, tend to be, in contrast, cleaner, more organized, more up-to-date, more advanced in the technology and in the professional capabilities that are available. Patient waiting times in the private facilities also tend to be much shorter compared to public facilities.

Your household staff may feel more comfortable going to a puskesmas, if they are newly arrived from the village. They may also choose to go to a general practitioner’s office for their healthcare needs. Hospitals will have different types of accommodation in wards, some for shared use with several patients in a room, some for two or three patients, and some single occupancy rooms and suites. The room type will determine the pricing of the room and the treatments and procedures, and for most household staff this will be determined through the universal national health insurance scheme of BPJS.

Healthcare for Expats

Expats that are employed within Indonesia are required to join the government BPJS program. After working for at least six months the employer should register any expat for this scheme. The card will be issued to yourself and family members and should be used for any appointment in Puskesmas or government hospital.

Most expats will, however, will also have health insurance provided by their employer or opt to take a private medical health insurance from one of the many international or local providers of insurance. The staff in insurance companies that cater to expats will often be able to speak English (or other languages) and be able to give advice on all health insurance matters.

Costs of Care

Upon arrival at a hospital/medical clinic/health care provider, the registration staff will provide an estimate of expected costs and will confirm with your insurer if a specific procedure is covered. Anything not covered by your insurance, you will be expected to pay in full, probably in advance of the procedure.

International Healthcare Facility Standards

The newer private hospitals in Indonesia’s larger cities now compete on equal terms with other international hospitals across Asia in terms of facilities, diagnostic technologies, hospital design, patient and family experience and service levels. Some work closely with an international collaborative partner hospital/s that can guarantee diagnostic accuracy equating to the best international hospitals worldwide, giving more patients the confidence and understanding to choose treatment options in Indonesia.

Hospitals will generally have wards accommodating more than one patient, single occupancy rooms, and VIP suites of varying sizes, facilities, and pricing. The coverage of your choice of medical room will also be adjusted according to the room type you occupy, so check ahead of time to find out what your medical insurance covers in term of room type.

Preventative Care

Private sector hospitals in Indonesia offer a full range of Preventative Health Medical Check Up packages that are certainly comparable in quality to what is available overseas, and generally at much lower costs. These are well advised on an annual basis, particularly for those in middle to older age groups. A complete medical checkup may also be required by an employer annually.

Doctors are free to work in different clinics and hospitals, but they must be registered to work within a particular facility and cannot work anywhere at random. This is why you will see the same doctor practicing at different medical clinics or hospitals.

Likewise with pharmacies and pharmaceuticals, there are many regulations in place to safeguard the quality of advertising, distribution and sale of medicines, but there is nonetheless much trade in illegal sale of pharmaceuticals by unlicensed product vendors. Read our article on Apotik/Pharmacies for more information [link].

Mobile Technology

Mobile technology is widely used with appointments for doctors within hospitals being made through apps online, and the sharing of test results, radiology and patient communications, also through mobile applications. This enables you to easily check previous test results with easy access from your mobile device or computer. Telemedicine is also expanding very quickly, and now many Indonesian hospitals will facilitate online Telemedicine Consultations with either general doctor or specialist doctors, or connect you with regional specialists in their partner hospitals overseas.


Referrals and Walk-In Admissions

Patients wishing to consult a doctor as an outpatient at a hospital should generally be referred from a Primary Health care clinic or Puskesmas. In practice, however, many in need of care will turn up to the hospital as walk-in patients. It is advisable to make an appointment, if appointments are facilitated beforehand, to try to reduce the amount of waiting time that you will have on arrival at the hospital. In the case that the hospital does not accept appointments, patients are seen on a “first come, first served” basis so depending on how popular the doctor is, there may be a long wait.

Focus on Patient Experience

In choosing a hospital in Indonesia, look for one that focuses on a positive patient experience and international standards. Nothing is more important than the skills of the doctors and care providers as well as your sense of comfort in the equipment available for diagnosis in the hospital facility.

Many new hospitals in Indonesia feature ultra-modern designs that emphasize bright and light-filled spaces and patient comfort stands in stark contrast to the traditional view that hospitals are places of doom and gloom. Comfortable patient rooms starting from 40-square meters in size, sleep hubs for waiting family and friends, and the hospitals contiguous connection to 5-star hotel standards reflect the core belief that, in many cases, patient treatment and care can be a positive and uplifting experience.

Look into options before you need them

In the event you need to be admitted to a hospital in Indonesia during your stay, it would be wise to look into options near your place of work/residence so that you will feel comfortable with your choice of hospital during an emergency, or for urgent care. Contact the marketing office of nearby hospitals and ask to take a tour of their facilities.

Routine Care for Chronic Conditions

The larger city center hospitals, certainly those in the Jakarta area, will have certain specialty clinics such as Cardiovascular, Cancer, Brain and Spinal, etc. So if you are aware of which specialty is relevant to your needs it is worth researching for the hospital that specializes in that. With the exception of some facilities that focus purely on their specialty however, most hospitals are also General Hospitals and with have many clinics with associated Specialist and Sub-Specialist doctors in attendance.

Some urban hospitals are also equipped to handle chronic or long term conditions such as Diabetes, Geriatric and Rehabilitation clinics, amongst others.

Accident & Emergency Rooms – Urgent Care

Traditionally, Accident & Emergency departments in Indonesian hospitals, known in Bahasa Indonesia as Unit Gawat Darurat (UGD), are large rooms with patients sub-divided by curtains. Newer hospitals, such as the Mandaya Royal Hospital Puri, pride themselves on having “One Room, One Patient”, thereby affording each patient privacy and greatly reduced stress levels because patients are separated from the treatments or conditions of other patients. The more modern hospitals will have continuous monitoring of vital statistics at A&E in order to predict and therefore preempt certain critical conditions.

How to Get the Hospital

Emergency Ambulance services are provided by a number of private companies in Indonesia and use various emergency telephone numbers. These have now largely been consolidated, but there are still some regional variances.

Ambulances in Indonesia are often staffed only by a driver. Others, such as the ambulances run by Mandaya Royal Hospital Puri, will always send a doctor and a nurse to provide first response treatment on the way to the hospital.

For cases where an ambulance in not absolutely required, it is often quicker to transport a patient in private transport or a taxi.

Emergency Ambulance Numbers

119 is now covered by almost all major telephone providers throughout Indonesia

118 was in use largely in Java and some Emergency Services still use this number

021 5095 8388 Mandaya Royal Hospital Puri Emergency Ambulance number

Other Emergency Numbers

113 Fire
123 Police
129 National Disaster

For any regional variations you may check the Indonesia EMS Coverage Map

Some Indonesian Emergency Words



I have had an accident

Saya mengalami kecelakaan




Pingsan / tidak sadar



Heart attack

Serangan jantung







Very sick

Sangat sakit

In labour/having contractions

Mau melahirkan / ada kontraksi

I am in labour

Saya dalam persalinan

Need a doctor

Butuh seorang dokter

Need an ambulance

Butuh sebuah ambulan



Help me

Tolong saya





Designed, built, equipped, and staffed to set a new standard for quality medical care available in the region, The Mandaya Royal Hospital Puri opened in July 2021. This state-of-the-art medical facility has quickly earned the accolade of being “A Hospital Like No Other” in Indonesia and the region.

The Mandaya Royal Hospital Puri prides itself on the quality of its patient care built on a solid cornerstone of diagnostic excellence. By equipping examination rooms, treatment and therapy areas, and surgical theatres with the most modern medical equipment available internationally and linking an outstanding local team of physicians with their counterparts from the Cleveland Clinic in the USA and The Royal Brompton & Harefield Hospital in the UK, superlative diagnostic and treatment procedures result.

Seeking to help the community lead healthy and productive lives, The Mandaya Royal Hospital Puri  has quickly become the preferred place for comprehensive Medical Check-Ups. This is in absolute keeping with the Hospital’s core belief that disease prevention and early diagnosis are key elements to successful medical care in the 21st Century.

Supporting The Mandaya Royal Hospital Puri’s goal of creating the highest possible patient experience is a team of 16 Patient Experience Officers whose only function is to ensure no effort is spared in supplying comfort and satisfaction by liaising with patients and their family at every point during their hospital stay.

The Mandaya Hospital Karawang, east of Jakarta, has a “Passion for healing” – This tagline encapsulates what lies the heart of our day to-day work: combining high-quality medicine with personalized care. This is the reason why patients have been entrusting us with their most valuable asset – their health. Staying in our hospital feels like in a hotel, and we believe that this environment helps to recover faster.

In addition, Mandaya Hospital Karawang received hospital accreditation with the PARIPURNA level, that issued by the Komisi Akreditasi Rumah Sakit (KARS). Beside that, in 2017, Mandaya Hospital Karawang has been received an award from BPJS Ketenagakerjaan as a WINNER of the “Pusat Layanan Kecelakaan Kerja BPJS Ketenagakerjaan” for the West Java region.

For more information on The Mandaya Royal Hospital Puri please contact Dr. Ibel, Business Development Manager.

This article was generously provided by the Mandaya Hospital Group.